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Selenium WebDriver

What is Selenium

Selenium is an open-source, cross-platform framework that allows you to automate web browsers. It provides a way to interact with web elements, perform actions, and validate the behavior of web applications, just like a real user would. Selenium supports various programming languages, including Java, Python, C#, and more, making it versatile and accessible to a broad range of developers and testers.

Components of Selenium

Selenium is composed of several key components:

  • Selenium WebDriver: The core component for automating web browsers. It provides a programming interface for interacting with web elements and browsers.
  • Selenium IDE: A record-and-playback tool for creating simple automation scripts without coding. Useful for beginners and quick test case creation.
  • Selenium Grid: Allows you to distribute test execution across multiple machines, browsers, and platforms simultaneously. Ideal for running tests in parallel to save time.

Locators


  1. ID
  2. Name
  3. Class Name
  4. Tag Name
  5. Link Text
  6. Partial Link Text
  7. CSS Selector
  8. XPath
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// Find element by id
By.id("element_id");
// Find element name
By.name("name");
// Find element by class name
By.className("class_name");
// Find element tag name
By.tagName("tag_name");
// Find element link text
By.linkText("link_text");
// Find element by partial link text
By.partialLinkText("partial_link_text");
// Find element by css selector
By.cssSelector("#css_selector");
// Find element by xpath
By.xpath("//xpath");
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// Find element by id
By.Id("element_id");
// Find element name
By.Name("name");
// Find element by class name
By.ClassName("class_name");
// Find element tag name
By.TagName("tag_name");
// Find element link text
By.LinkText("link_text");
// Find element by partial link text
By.PartialLinkText("partial_link_text");
// Find element by css selector
By.CssSelector("#css_selector");
// Find element by xpath
By.XPath("//xpath");
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WebDriver Methods



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//Load a new web page in the current browser window..
driver.get("https://example.com");
//It will close the current window.
driver.close();
//This method will return the title of the current page.
driver.getTitle();
//It will return the URL of the page currently loaded in the browser.
driver.getCurrentUrl();
//Get the source of the last loaded page.
driver.getPageSource();
//Quits this driver, closing every associated window.
driver.quit();
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//Load a new web page in the current browser window..
driver.Url = "https://example.com";
//It will close the current window.
driver.Close();
//This method will return the title of the current page.
String pageTitle =  driver.Title;
//It will return the URL of the page currently loaded in the browser.
String currentUrl = driver.Url;
//Get the source of the last loaded page.
String pageSource = driver.PageSource;
//Quits this driver, closing every associated window.
driver.Quit();
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Navigation Methods



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//Load a new web page in the current browser window.
driver.navigate().to("http://www.example2.com");
// Move back a single "item" in the browser's history.
driver.navigate().back();
// Move a single "item" forward in the browser's history.
driver.navigate().forward();
// Refresh the current page
driver.navigate().refresh();
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//Load a new web page in the current browser window.
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.example2.com");
// Move back a single "item" in the browser's history.
driver.Navigate().Back();
// Move a single "item" forward in the browser's history.
driver.Navigate().Forward();
// Refresh the current page
driver.Navigate().Refresh();
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Managing current window



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//Fullscreen the current window if it is not already fullscreen
driver.manage().window().fullscreen();
// Maximizes the current window if it is not already maximized
driver.manage().window().maximize();
// Minimizes the current window if it is not already minimized
driver.manage().window().minimize();
//This method will return the size of the current window.
driver.manage().window().getSize();
//This method will set the size of the current window with given parameters.
driver.manage().window().setSize();
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//Fullscreen the current window if it is not already fullscreen
driver.Manage().Window.FullScreen();
// Maximizes the current window if it is not already maximized
driver.Manage().Window.Maximize();
// Minimizes the current window if it is not already minimized
driver.Manage().Window.Minimize();
//This method will return the size of the current window.
var size = driver.Manage().Window.Size;
//This method will set the size of the current window with given parameters.
driver.Manage().Window.Size = new Size(600, 800);
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Managing Driver Timeouts



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//Sets the amount of time the driver should wait when searching for an element if it is not immediately present.
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(10));
//Sets the amount of time to wait for a page load to complete before throwing an error.
driver.manage().timeouts().pageLoadTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(10));
//Sets the amount of time to wait for an asynchronous script to finish execution before throwing an error.
driver.manage().timeouts().scriptTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(10));
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//Sets the amount of time the driver should wait when searching for an element if it is not immediately present.
driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10);
//Sets the amount of time to wait for a page load to complete before throwing an error.
driver.Manage().Timeouts().PageLoad = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10);
//Sets the amount of time to wait for an asynchronous script to finish execution before throwing an error.
driver.Manage().Timeouts().AsynchronousJavaScript = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10);
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WebDriver Wait



Explicit Wait



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WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.get("https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/wait/");
driver.manage().window().maximize();
driver.findElement(By.id("wait1")).click();
WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(10));
wait.until(ExpectedConditions.visibilityOfElementLocated(By.id("Elem1StatusA")));
driver.quit();
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IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.Url = "https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/wait/";
driver.Manage().Window.Maximize();
driver.FindElement(By.Id("wait1")).Click();
WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10));
wait.Until(d =>d.FindElement(By.Id("wait1Status")).Text.Equals("Wait 1 Status"));
driver.Quit();
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Fluent Wait



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WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.get("https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/wait/");
driver.manage().window().maximize();

driver.findElement(By.id("wait1")).click();

FluentWait<WebDriver> wait = new FluentWait<>(driver);
wait.withTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(10));
wait.pollingEvery(Duration.ofMillis(500));
wait.ignoring(NoSuchElementException.class);

wait.until(d-> d.findElement(By.id("Elem1StatusA")).isDisplayed());

driver.quit();
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IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.Url = "https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/wait/";
driver.Manage().Window.Maximize();
driver.FindElement(By.Id("wait1")).Click();
WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(15));
wait.PollingInterval = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2);
wait.IgnoreExceptionTypes(typeof(NoSuchElementException));
wait.Until(d => d.FindElement(By.Id("wait1Status")).Text.Equals("Wait 1 Status"));
driver.Quit();
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Window Handles



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//Getting first window handle
String firstWindowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();
//Click on link to open second window
driver.findElement(By.id("page2Link")).click();
//Getting all opened window handles
Set<String> allOpenWindowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();
//Looping through all window handles to switch to new window handle
for (String windowHandle : allOpenWindowHandles)
{
	if(!windowHandle.equals(firstWindowHandle))
	{
		driver.switchTo().window(windowHandle);
		break;
	}
}
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//Getting first window handle
String firstWindowHandle = driver.CurrentWindowHandle;
//Click on link to open second window
driver.FindElement(By.Id("page2Link")).Click();
//Getting all opened window handles
var allOpenWindowHandles = driver.WindowHandles;
//Looping through all window handles to switch to new window handle
foreach (String windowHandle in allOpenWindowHandles)
{
    if (!windowHandle.Equals(firstWindowHandle))
    {
        driver.SwitchTo().Window(windowHandle);
        break;
    }
}
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Frames



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// Switch to the frame
driver.switchTo().frame(frame1);
// Switch focus to the parent context.
driver.switchTo().parentFrame();
// Switch to the main document from frame
driver.switchTo().defaultContent();
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// Switch to the frame
driver.SwitchTo().Frame("frame1");
// Switch focus to the parent context.
driver.SwitchTo().ParentFrame();
// Switch to the main document from frame
driver.SwitchTo().DefaultContent();
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Alert



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//Switch to alert
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();
// To accept the alert dialog
alert.accept();
// To dismiss the alert dialog
alert.dismiss();
// To get alert dialog text
alert.getText();
// To enter text in prompt dialog
alert.sendKeys("sample");
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//Switch to alert
IAlert alert = driver.SwitchTo().Alert();
// To accept the alert dialog
alert.Accept();
// To dismiss the alert dialog
alert.Dismiss();
// To get alert dialog text
String alertText = alert.Text;
// To enter text in prompt dialog
alert.SendKeys("sample");
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WebElement Methods



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//Find the first WebElement using the given method.
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.id("some_id"));
//Find all elements within the current page using the given mechanism. 
List<WebElement> elements = driver.findElements(By.tagName("some_tag"));
// To type into an element, which may set its value
element.sendKeys("some text");
// Get the visible text of this element
element.getText();
// Check if this element displayed
element.isDisplayed();
// Check if this element enabled
element.isEnabled();
// Get the tag name of this element
element.getTagName();
// Click this element
element.click();
// It will submit the form
element.submit();
// Get the value of the given attribute
element.getAttribute("value");
// Get the value of a given CSS property
element.getCssValue("float");
// Find the first WebElement within element
element.findElement(By.id("someId"));
// Find WebElements within element
element.findElements(By.className("items"));
// It will reset element value
element.clear();
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//Find the first WebElement using the given method.
IWebElement element = driver.FindElement(By.Id("some_id"));
//Find all elements within the current page using the given mechanism. 
var elements = driver.FindElements(By.TagName("some_tag"));
// To type into an element, which may set its value
element.SendKeys("some text");
// Get the visible text of this element
String text = element.Text;
// Check if this element displayed
bool isDisplayed = element.Displayed;
// Check if this element enabled
bool isEnabled = element.Enabled;
// Get the tag name of this element
String tagName = element.TagName;
// Click this element
element.Click();
// It will submit the form
element.Submit();
// Get the value of the given attribute
element.GetAttribute("value");
// Get the value of a given CSS property
element.GetCssValue("float");
// Find the first WebElement within element
element.FindElement(By.Id("someId"));
// Find WebElements within element
element.FindElements(By.ClassName("items"));
// It will reset element value
element.Clear();
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Select Methods



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Select select = new Select(element);
// Select the option at the given index.
select.selectByIndex(1);
// Select all options that have a value matching the argument.
select.selectByValue("some value");
// Select all options that display text matching the argument.
select.selectByVisibleText("Visible text");
// Clear all selected entries.
select.deselectAll();
// Deselect the option at the given index.
select.deselectByIndex(1);
// Deselect all options that have a value matching the argument.
select.deselectByValue("some value");
// Deselect all options that display text matching the argument.
select.deselectByVisibleText("visible text");
// Returns all selected options belonging to this select tag
select.getAllSelectedOptions();
// Returns the first selected option in this select tag
select.getFirstSelectedOption();
// Returns all options belonging to this select tag
select.getOptions();
// Check whether this select element support selecting multiple options
select.isMultiple();
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SelectElement select = new SelectElement(element);
// Select the option at the given index.
select.SelectByIndex(1);
// Select all options that have a value matching the argument.
select.SelectByValue("some value");
// Select all options that display text matching the argument.
select.SelectByText("Visible text");
// Clear all selected entries.
select.DeselectAll();
// Deselect the option at the given index.
select.DeselectByIndex(1);
// Deselect all options that have a value matching the argument.
select.DeselectByValue("some value");
// Deselect all options that display text matching the argument.
select.DeselectByText("visible text");
// Returns all selected options belonging to this select tag
var allSelected = select.AllSelectedOptions;
// Returns the first selected option in this select tag
var firstSelected = select.SelectedOption;
// Returns all options belonging to this select tag
var options = select.Options;
// Check whether this select element support selecting multiple options
bool isMultiple = select.IsMultiple;
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JavaScript Executor Methods



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JavascriptExecutor je = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;
// Executes JavaScript in the context of the currently selected frame or window.
je.executeScript("window.scrollBy(10,500)");
//Execute an asynchronous piece of JavaScript in the context of the currently selected frame or window.
je.executeAsyncScript("window.setTimeout(arguments[arguments.length - 1], 2000);");
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IJavaScriptExecutor je = (IJavaScriptExecutor)driver;
// Executes JavaScript in the context of the currently selected frame or window.
je.ExecuteScript("window.scrollBy(10,500)");
//Execute an asynchronous piece of JavaScript in the context of the currently selected frame or window.
je.ExecuteAsyncScript("window.setTimeout(arguments[arguments.length - 1], 2000);");
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Actions



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// For emulating complex user gestures and keyboard or Mouse actions
Actions actions = new Actions(driver);
// Drang and drop
actions.dragAndDrop(sourceElement, destinationElement);
// Clicks at the current mouse location.
actions.click();
// Clicks (without releasing) at the current mouse location
actions.clickAndHold();
// Performs a context-click at the current mouse location.
actions.contextClick();
// Performs a double-click at the current mouse location.
actions.doubleClick();
// Performs a modifier key press.
actions.keyDown(Keys.ENTER);
// Moves the mouse to the middle of the element.
actions.moveToElement(destinationElement);
// Releases the depressed left mouse button at the current mouse location.
actions.release();
// Sends keys to the active element.
actions.sendKeys();
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// For emulating complex user gestures and keyboard or Mouse actions
Actions actions = new Actions(driver);
// Drang and drop
actions.DragAndDrop(sourceElement, destinationElement);
// Clicks at the current mouse location.
actions.Click();
// Clicks (without releasing) at the current mouse location
actions.ClickAndHold();
// Performs a context-click at the current mouse location.
actions.ContextClick();
// Performs a double-click at the current mouse location.
actions.DoubleClick();
// Performs a modifier key press.
actions.KeyDown(Keys.Enter);
// Moves the mouse to the middle of the element.
actions.MoveToElement(destinationElement);
// Releases the depressed left mouse button at the current mouse location.
actions.Release();
// Sends keys to the active element.
actions.SendKeys();
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WebDriver Manager



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// Library to import
// import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager;

//Automatically downloads and configures the ChromeDriver binary
WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.get("https://www.example.com");
driver.quit();
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//Automatically downloads and configures the ChromeDriver binary
new WebDriverManager.DriverManager().SetUpDriver(new ChromeConfig());
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.Url = "https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/home/";
driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30);
driver.Manage().Window.Maximize();
driver.Quit();
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Selenium Server (Grid)



Following are the command to configure the selenium Server.

Standalone

java -jar selenium-server.jar standalone

Hub and Node

java -jar selenium-server.jar hub java -jar selenium-server.jar node java -jar selenium-server.jar node --hub http://:4444

Example code to run test on Selenium Server


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ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
//Add capability
//options.setCapability("");
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://localhost:4444"), options);
driver.get("https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/home/");

driver.quit();
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ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
//Add Options
options.AddArgument("--headless");
IWebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new Uri("http://localhost:4444"), options);
driver.Url = "https://www.testautomationstudio.com/demo/home/";
driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30);
driver.Manage().Window.Maximize();
driver.Quit();
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